SOLID- Open Closed Principle

Open Closed Principle (OCP) states that,

Software entities (Classes, modules, functions) should be OPEN for EXTENSION, CLOSED for MODIFICATION.

Lets try to reflect on the above statement- software entities once written shouldn’t be modified to add new functionality, instead one has to extend the same to add new functionality. In otherwords you don’t touch the existing modules thereby not disturbing the existing functionality, instead you extend the modules to implement the new requirement. So your code is less rigid and fragile and also extensible.

OCP term was coined by Bertnard Meyer.

How can we confirm to OCP principle?

Its simple- Allow the modules (classes) to depend on the abstractions, there by new features can be added by creating new extensions of these abstractions.

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SOLID- Single Responsibility Principle

The Single Responsibility principle (SRP) states that:

There should never be more than one reason for a class to change.

We can relate the “reason to change” to “the responsibility of the class”. So each responsibility would be an axis for change. This principle is similar to designing classes which are highly cohesive. So the idea is to design a class which has one responsibility or in otherwords caters to implementing a¬†functionality¬†. I would like to clarify here that one responsibility doesnt mean that the class has only ONE method. A responsibility can be implemented by means of different methods in the class.

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Cohesion and Coupling: Two OO Design Principles

Cohesion and Coupling deal with the quality of an OO design. Generally, good OO design should be loosely coupled and highly cohesive. Lot of the design principles, design patterns which have been created are based on the idea of “Loose coupling and high cohesion”.

The aim of the design should be to make the application:

  • easier to develop
  • easier to maintain
  • easier to add new features
  • less Fragile.

Coupling:

Coupling is the degree to which one class knows about another class. Let us consider two classes class A and class B. If class A knows class B through its interface only i.e it interacts with class B through its API then class A and class B are said to be loosely coupled.

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